Astro2020 Decadal Survey Project (APC) White Papers

The following white papers on Activities, Projects, and State of the Profession Considerations (APC) submitted to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey (Astro-2020) and discuss the US ELT Program, instruments or synergistic projects related to GMT and TMT, and other related topics. If you know of other relevant white papers that are not listed here, please write to

See also Astro2020 science white papers.

Title Lead author(s)
The US Extremely Large Telescope Program Wolff, Sidney (AURA)
Multiwavelength Astrophysics in the Era of the ngVLA and the US ELT Program Beasley, Anthony J. (AUI/NRAO), and Wolff, Sidney (AURA)
Observatory Operating Costs and Their Relation to Capital Costs Goodrich, Robert (GMTO)
The Landscape for Directly Characterizing Potentially Habitable & Inhabited Planets in the Late 2020s and Beyond Dressing, Courtney (University of California, Berkeley)
The Planetary Systems Imager for TMT Fitzgerald, Michael (University of California Los Angeles)
A Technology Validation Program for near-IR Habitable Exoplanet Imaging with GMT and TMT Guyon, Olivier (University of Arizona)
GMagAO-X: extreme adaptive optics & coronagraphy for GMT at first light Males, Jared (University of Arizona)
Orbiting Starshade: Observing Exoplanets at visible wavelengths with GMT, TMT, and ELT Mather, John (NASA GSFC)
High-resolution Infrared Spectrograph for Exoplanet Characterization with the Keck and Thirty Meter Telescopes Mawet, Dimitri (Caltech/JPL)
Orbiting Configurable Artificial Star (ORCAS) for Visible Adaptive Optics from the Ground Peretz, Eliad (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

Updated: 24 July 2019