PI: Tuan Do, UCLA, email@example.com
Address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, 8371 Math Sciences, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1562 USA
CoI: Jessica Lu, U. of Hawaii
CoI: Joshua Simon, Carnegie Institution of Washington
CoI: Annika Peter, Ohio State U.
CoI: Mike Boylan-Kolchin, U. of Maryland
Title: Measuring the orbital history of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules with GSAOI
Abstract: The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are the most dark matter dominated systems known to date. Their low masses, low luminosities, and extremely low metallicities offer a glimpse into galaxy formation at the earliest epochs, while their high inferred dark matter densities and proximity make them ideal candidates for indirect dark matter detection experiments. However, significant uncertainties remain in key observables such as the mass and infall history of these extreme objects. For example, without knowledge of their orbits, it is difficult to determine whether their masses are overestimated because their radial velocity dispersions have been inflated by past tidal encounters with the Milky Way. We propose to measure the proper motion of the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy using GSAOI to understand its orbital history. Hercules is a particularly intriguing target because structural and kinematic studies have motivated claims that it is tidally disrupting despite its relatively large present distance from the Milky Way and apparently high mass-to-light ratio. It also has a very old stellar population, making it a prime candidate for a "fossil galaxy" whose star formation was shut off by reionization. With observations in 2016A, 2017A, and 2018A in conjunction with HST data taken in 2011, we will be able to achieve 28 km/s proper motion precision, making it possible to reconstruct the orbit of Hercules. Knowledge of its perigalacticon will allow us to quantify the tidal effects of the Milky Way on its internal stellar dynamics, while its eccentricities and orbital energies will constrain the initial infall time into the Milky Way dark matter halo. This proposal aims to extend the technique developed of HST data to using background galaxies as absolute reference sources to ground based MCAO observations, which will be important for astrometry work after HST and for future extremely large telescopes.
Program Type: Standard/Extragalactic
Run 1 (2016A): GEM-SQ/GSAOI -- 10.5hrs band 1 (GS-2016A-Q-34)
National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, Arizona 85726, Phone: (520) 318-8000, Fax: (520) 318-8360