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NOAO News Archive: 2014

December 18, 2014

Compact Galaxy Groups Reveal Details of Their Close Encounters

Image of HCG 07 shows galaxies undergoing a burst of star formation. Image credit: Dane Kleiner

A team including NOAO staff scientist Dr. David James has obtained spectacular images of some Compact Galaxy Groups with the Dark Energy camera on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This image of HCG 07 shows galaxies undergoing a burst of star formation.

NOAO Press Release 14-08

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September 22, 2014

Infant Solar System Shows Signs of Windy Weather

Artist’s rendition of AS 205 N, a T Tauri star that is part of a multiple star system.

Image Credit: P. Marenfeld & NOAO/AURA/NSF

NOAO astronomer Colette Salyk has led a study using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have observed what may be the first-ever signs of windy weather around a T Tauri star, an infant analog of our own Sun. This may help explain why some T Tauri stars have disks that glow weirdly in infrared light while others shine in a more expected fashion.

NOAO Press Release 14-07

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September 9, 2014

HD100546 and Circumstellar Disk with Extrasolar Planet

In a recently published paper, NOAO astronomer Joan Najita was part of a team that has shown the first evidence for a planet forming in the disk around a young star. This figure is an artist’s conception of the young massive star HD100546 and its surrounding disk.

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September 3, 2014

Half of all Exoplanet Host Stars are Binaries

The Kepler field of view, located between two bright stars in the summer triangle, rising over the WIYN telescope in southern Arizona.

Imagine living on an exoplanet with two suns. One, you orbit and the other is a very bright, nearby neighbor looming large in your sky. With this “second sun” in the sky, nightfall might be a rare event, perhaps only coming seasonally to your planet. A new study suggests that this could be far more common than we realized.

NOAO Press Release 14-06

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August 6, 2014

Dr. Arlo Landolt: 55 years of Observing at the National Observatories

Dr. Arlo Landolt, Ball Professor Emeritus of physics and astronomy at Louisiana State University, was recently celebrated for his 55 years of observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), almost all devoted to service to the astronomical community. In the summer of 1959, Dr. Landolt was the first guest observer at KPNO when the only telescope on the mountain was the 16-inch site survey telescope.

NOAO Press Release 14-05

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June 23, 2014

The Coolest Known White Dwarf: A Diamond in the Sky?

This image (left), taken in visible light at the SOAR telescope (right), shows the field of the pulsar/white dwarf pair. There is no evidence for the white dwarf at the position of the pulsar in this deep image, indicating that the white dwarf is much fainter, and therefore cooler, than any such known object. The two large white circles mask bright, overexposed stars. These results are presented in a recently published paper led by Dr. David Kaplan (UW-Milwaukee)

“Up above the world so high, like a diamond in the sky…” A team of astronomers, using multiple telescopes, has identified the coolest, faintest white dwarf star known. White dwarfs are the extremely dense end states of stars like our sun: after their nuclear fuel is exhausted, they collapse from the size of a star (about 1,000,000 miles across) to the size of the Earth (7,000 miles across). This white dwarf, located in the constellation Aquarius, is so cool that its carbon has crystallized—in other words, it’s like a diamond, with a mass similar to that of our sun.

NOAO Press Release 14-04

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April 16, 2014

A Sharp Eye on Southern Binary Stars

Animation demonstrating the orbit of the close binary pair Ba, Bb in the HIP 83716 Triple System. The orbit has been calculated from five observations (blue circles) taken between 2009, when the close binary was discovered by CTIO Astronomer Dr. Andrei Tokovinin and his associates from the USNO while using speckle imaging at SOAR, and 2014, the date of the most recent observation. Animation Credit: M. Newhouse & NOAO/AURA/NSF

Unlike our sun, with its retinue of orbiting planets, many stars in the sky orbit around a second star. These binary stars, with orbital periods ranging from days to centuries, have long been the primary tool for measuring basic quantities like the star’s mass. While masses of normal stars are now well determined, some binaries present special interest because their stars are unusual (e.g. very young) or because they may contain planets, gas clouds, or other stars.

NOAO Press Release 14-03

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April 2, 2014

Sakurai’s Object: Stellar Evolution in Real Time

An oil painting done by Stephen Mack that represents what the present expanding shell of gas and dust around the star may look like. Mack is a member of the Tohono O’odham Nation, the Native American tribe on whose land the Kitt Peak National Observatory, which is managed by NOAO, is located.

Stellar lifetimes are measured in billions of years, so changes in their appearance rarely take place on a human timescale. Thus an opportunity to observe a star passing from one stage of life to another on a timescale of months to years is very exciting, as there are only a very few examples known. One such star is Sakurai’s Object (V4334 Sgr). First reported by a Japanese amateur astronomer in 1996 as a “nova-like object,” Sakurai’s Object had been only a few years before the faint central star of a planetary nebula.

Using the Altair adaptive optics (AO) system with the Gemini North telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawai’i to compensate for distortions to starlight caused by the Earth’s atmosphere, two NOAO astronomers, Dr. Kenneth Hinkle & Dr. Richard Joyce, were able to observe the shell of escaping material around the star. Read more in NOAO Press Release 14-02.

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February 19, 2014

Astronomers at the National Observatory Continue to Watch Sn 2014J

Image of SN2014J taken through a filter which permits only red light at the WIYN 3.5-meter telescope.

The astronomical community was very excited by the appearance of a supernova in a relatively nearby galaxy in late January 2014. Observations of this supernova, located in the galaxy M 82, and referred to as SN2014J revealed that it is a type Ia. These occur in a binary star system composed of a dense white dwarf star and a companion star, either another white dwarf or a bloated red giant star. These supernovae are especially interesting because they provide one of the best ways to measure distances to faint galaxies, and therefore calibrate the expansion of the universe. At Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), two different teams have been observing SN2014J.

NOAO Press Release 14-01

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