What Galaxies have been observed using the PNLF method?

The planetary nebula Abell 39


Below is a list of galaxies whose distances have been found using the Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF). Distances are referenced to a zero-point based on M31 having a distance of 710 kpc and a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.11. This is the baseline zero-point used in all our papers. To place these distances on the modern scale where the distance to M31 is 770 kpc (Freedman & Madore 1990) and E(B-V) = 0.08, all distances should be increased by 0.06 mag (3%).

In the case of NGC 5253 only, a metallicity correction (Ciardullo & Jacoby 1992) has been applied, because it has SMC-like abundances.

 

Table Information:


Galaxy is the common name for the galaxy.

Type is the Hubble type of the galaxy, as found in the literature.

Number of PN refers to the number of planetary nebulae in a statistically complete sub-sample used in finding a distance. Galaxies that have larger number of PN will generally have more accurate distances than galaxies with smaller number of PN.

Distance Modulus, or DM is the normal distance modulus used throughout astronomy. It is defined as DM = 5 * log d - 5 , where d is the distance in parsecs, and the log is base 10.

The Reference field indicates the journal reference to the particular distance. Each reference is tied into the ADS abstract system. Clicking on the reference will send you to the appropriate paper for complete information.

"In preparation" indicates that we have obtained PNLF data for this galaxy, and a distance should be forthcoming.


Galaxy Type Number of PN  Distance Modulus Reference 
Local Group
LMC SBm 42 18.44 +/- 0.18 Jacoby, Walker, & Ciardullo (1990)
SMC Im 8 19.09 +/- 0.29 Jacoby, Walker, & Ciardullo (1990)
NGC 185 dE3p 4 --- Ciardullo et al. (1989)
NGC 205 S0/E5p 12 24.68 +/- 0.35 Ciardullo et al. (1989)
NGC 221 (M 32) E2 9 24.58 +/- 0.60 Ciardullo et al. (1989)
NGC 224 (M 31) Sb 104 24.26 +/- 0.04 Ciardullo et al. (1989)
NGC 598 (M 33) --- --- --- In preparation
NGC 1023 Group
NGC 891 Sb 34 29.97 +/- 0.16 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Harris (1991)
NGC 1023 SB0 97 29.97 +/- 0.14 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Harris (1991)
Fornax Cluster
NGC 1316 S0p 58 31.13 +/- 0.07 McMillan, Ciardullo, & Jacoby (1993)
NGC 1399 E1 37 31.17 +/- 0.08 McMillan, Ciardullo, & Jacoby (1993)
NGC 1404 E2 19 31.15 +/- 0.10 McMillan, Ciardullo, & Jacoby (1993)
Leo I Group
NGC 3377 E6 22 30.07 +/- 0.17 Ciardullo, Jacoby & Ford (1989)
NGC 3379 (M 105) E0 45 29.96 +/- 0.16 Ciardullo, Jacoby & Ford (1989)
NGC 3384 SB0 43 30.03 +/- 0.16 Ciardullo, Jacoby & Ford (1989)
NGC 3368 (M 96) Sab 25 29.91 +/- 0.15 Feldmeier, Ciardullo & Jacoby (1997)
NGC 3351 --- --- --- In preparation
Virgo Cluster
NGC 4374 (M 84) E1 37 30.98 +/- 0.18 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Ford (1990)
NGC 4382 (M 85) S0 59 30.79 +/- 0.17 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Ford (1990)
NGC 4406 (M 86) S0/E3 59 30.98 +/- 0.17 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Ford (1990)
NGC 4472 (M 49) E1/S0 26 30.71 +/- 0.19 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Ford (1990)
NGC 4486 (M 87) E0 187 30.79 +/- 0.16 Ciardullo et al. (1998)
NGC 4649 (M 60) S0 16 30.76 +/- 0.19 Jacoby, Ciardullo, & Ford (1990)
Coma I Group 
NGC 4278 E1 23 30.04 +/- 0.18 Jacoby, Ciardullo,  & Harris (1996)
NGC 4494 E1 101 30.54 +/- 0.14 Jacoby, Ciardullo,  & Harris (1996)
NGC 4565 Sb 17 30.12 +/- 0.17 Jacoby, Ciardullo,  & Harris (1996)
NGC 5128 Group
NGC 5102 S0p 19 27.47 +/- 0.22 McMillan, Ciardullo & Jacoby (1994)
NGC 5128 S0p 224 27.73 +/- 0.04 Hui et al. (1993)
NGC 5253 Amorph 16 27.80 +/- 0.29 Phillips et al. (1992)
Other
Milky Way Bulge Sbc 22 14.54 +/- 0.20 Pottasch (1990)
NGC 300 Sc 10 26.78 +/- 0.40 Soffner et al. (1996)
NGC 3031 (M 81) Sb 88 27.72 +/- 0.25 Jacoby et al. (1989)
NGC 3109 Sm 7 26.03 +/- 0.30 Richer & McCall (1992)
NGC 3115 S0 52 30.11 +/- 0.20 Ciardullo, Jacoby & Tonry (1993)
NGC 4594 (M 104) Sa 204 29.76 +/- 0.13 Ford et al. (1996)
NGC 5194/5195 (M 51) Sbc/SB0 38 29.56 +/- 0.15 Feldmeier, Ciardullo & Jacoby (1997)
NGC 5457 (M 101) Sc 27 29.36 +/- 0.15 Feldmeier, Ciardullo & Jacoby (1997)
NGC 3627 (M 66) --- --- --- In preparation
NGC 2403 --- --- --- In preparation
 


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