Education and Human Resources [ED]

ED13A MCW:Level 2 Monday 1340h

Teacher Professional Development Programs Promoting Authentic Scientific Research in the Classroom III Posters

Presiding: C E Walker, National Optical Astronomy Observatory; S K Croft, National Optical Astronomy Observatory; V Robigou, University of Washington; G Scowcroft, University of Rhode Island


Bridging Communities: Culturing a Professional Learning Community that Supports Novice Teachers and Transfers Authentic Science and Mathematics to the Classroom

* Herbert, B E ( , Texas A&M University, Department of Geology & Geophysics, College Station, TX 77843-3115, United States
Miller, H R ( , Texas A&M University, Department of Geology & Geophysics, College Station, TX 77843-3115, United States
Loving, C L ( , Texas A&M University, Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture, College Station, 77843-4232, United States
Pedersen, S ( , Texas A&M University, Department of Educational Psychology, College Station, 77843-4225, United States

Professional Learning Community Model for Alternative Pathways (PLC-MAP) is a partnership of North Harris Montgomery Community Colleges, Texas A&M University, and 11 urban, suburban, and rural school districts in the Greater Houston area focused on developing a professional learning community that increases the retention and quality of middle and high school mathematics and science teachers who are being certified through the NHMCCD Alternative Certification Program. Improved quality in teaching refers to increased use of effective inquiry teaching strategies, including information technology where appropriate, that engage students to ask worthy scientific questions and to reason, judge, explain, defend, argue, reflect, revise, and/or disseminate findings. Novice teachers learning to adapt or designing authentic inquiry in their classrooms face two enormous problems. First, there are important issues surrounding the required knowledgebase, habit of mind, and pedagogical content knowledge of the teachers that impact the quality of their lesson plans and instructional sequences. Second, many ACP intern teachers teach under challenging conditions with limited resources, which impacts their ability to implement authentic inquiry in the classroom. Members of our professional learning community, including scientists, mathematicians and master teachers, supports novice teachers as they design lesson plans that engage their students in authentic inquiry. The purpose of this research was to determine factors that contribute to success or barriers that prevent ACP secondary science intern and induction year teachers from gaining knowledge and engaging in classroom inquiry as a result of an innovative professional development experience. A multi-case study design was used for this research. We adopted a two-tail design where cases from both extremes (good and poor gains) were deliberately chosen. Six science teachers were selected from a total of 40+ mathematics and science teachers. These six, on average, demonstrated either the highest gain in knowledge and/or engagement in inquiry-based teaching or the lowest gain among all the novice science teachers through the year of participation in the PLC- MAP program. Certain patterns emerged across all six cases, even when the other variables are acknowledged. The principal external factors were school climate•Àits culture, its mandates, its degree of teacher autonomy. The internal factors were teacher beliefs about learning through inquiry, about their own need for additional knowledge, and about managing inquiry--all tied to degrees of self-efficacy.


PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Bringing Polar Research to the Classroom

Warnick, W K ( , Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK 99709, United States
Warburton, J ( , Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK 99709, United States
* Breen, K ( , Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK 99709, United States
Wiggins, H V ( , Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK 99709, United States
Larson, A ( , Goldstream Grant Writing and Evaluation, PO Box 80222, Fairbanks, AK 99708, United States
Behr, S ( , Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), 3535 College Road, Suite 101, Fairbanks, AK 99709, United States

PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program that pairs K-12 teachers with researchers to improve science education through authentic polar research experience. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wider range of research activities in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC uses a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) model to foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. With the help of their host researcher and the research team, teachers will develop the experience and tools necessary to teach science through scientific inquiry and investigation based on real-world experiences. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web- based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and ongoing teacher/researcher networks. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at or 907-474-1600. The PolarTREC website will be accessible in 2007 through the ARCUS web site at


High-Altitude Balloon Launches for Effective Education, Inspiration and Research

* Voss, H D ( , Taylor University, Physics Department 236 Reade Ave., Upland, IN 46989, United States
Dailey, J ( , Scadata Ventures, 1315 E. State Blvd., Fort Wayne, IN 46805, United States
Patterson, D ( , Taylor University, Physics Department 236 Reade Ave., Upland, IN 46989, United States
Krueger, J ( , StratoStar Systems, CRI Ayres Department 236 Reade Ave., Upland, IN 46989, United States

Over a three-year period the Taylor University Science Research Training Program (SRTP) has successfully launched and recovered 33 sophisticated payloads to altitudes between 20-33 km (100% success with rapid recovery). All of the payloads included two GPS tracking systems, cameras and monitors, a 110 kbit down link, and uplink command capability for educational experiments (K-12 and undergrad) and nanosatellite subsystem testing. Launches were conducted both day and night, with multiple balloons, with up to 10 experiment boxes, and under varying weather and upper atmospheric conditions. The many launches in a short period of time allowed the payload bus design to evolve toward increased performance, reliability, standardization, simplicity, and modularity for low-cost launch services. The current design uses a Zigbee wireless connection (50 kbaud rate) for each of the payload experiment boxes for rapid assembly and checkout with a common interface board for gathering analog and digital data and for commanding. Common data from each box is processed and displayed using modular LabView software. The use of balloons for active research (ozone, aerosols, cosmic rays. UV, IR, remote sensing, energy, propulsion) significantly invigorates and motivates student development, drives team schedule, uncovers unexpected problems, permits end-to-end closure, and forces calibration and validation of real data. The SRTP has helped to spin off a student company called StratoStar Systems for providing an affordable low-cost balloon launch service capability, insurance plan, and other technical assistance for scientific, industrial and STEM educational use.


Short-Term Research Experiences with Teachers in Earth and Planetary Sciences and a Model for Integrating Research into Classroom Inquiry

* Morgan, P ( , Northern Arizona University, Department of Geology, Frier Hall, Box 4099, Bldg. 12, Knowles Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-4099, United States
Bloom, J W ( , Northern Arizona University, Department of Teaching & Learning, Box 5774, College of Education, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5774, United States

For the past three summers, we have worked with in-service teachers on image processing, planetary geology, and earthquake and volcano content modules using inquiry methods that ended with mini-research experiences. Although almost all were science teachers, very few could give a reasonable definition of science at the start of the modules, and very few had a basic grasp of the processes of scientific research and could not include substantive scientific inquiry into their lessons. To build research understanding and confidence, an instructor-student interaction model was used in the modules. Studies have shown that children who participate in classrooms as learning and inquiry communities develop more complex understandings. The same patterns of complex understandings have resulted in similarly structured professional communities of teachers. The model is based on professional communities, emphasizing from the beginning that inquiry is a form of research. Although the actual •Àresearch•À component of the modules was short, the teachers were identified as professionals and researchers from the start. Research/inquiry participation is therefore an excellent example by which to allow their teachers to learn. Initially the teachers were very reluctant to pose questions. As they were encouraged to share, collaborate, and support each other, the role of the instructor became less of a leader and more of a facilitator, and the confidence of the teachers as professionals and researchers grew. One teacher even remarked, •ÀThis is how we should be teaching our kids!' Towards the end of the modules the teachers were ready for their mini-research projects and collaborated in teams of 2-4. They selected their own research topics, but were guided toward research questions that required data collection (from existing studies), some data manipulation, interpretation, and drawing conclusions with respect to the original question. The teachers were enthusiastic about all of their research experiences and overall expressed a new understanding of science and research.


Is there a correlation between teaching experience and the level of inquiry used in the classroom

* Hilding-Kronforst, S ( , Texas A&M University, TAMU, College Station, TX 77845, United States
Schielack, J ( , Texas A&M University, TAMU, College Station, TX 77845, United States

This research analyzes the correlation between the length of teaching experience and the level of inquiry proposed in the classroom. The analysis is on 51 participants over a two year period of a professional development experience designed to produce education specialists through a program focused on the interaction between scientists and mathematicians, education researchers, and education practitioners.


Inspiring Students to be Scientists: Oceanographic Research Journeys of a Middle School Teacher

* Paulishak, E ( , Elaine Paullishak, 1144 Rushbrook Road, Jermyn, PA 18433, United States

I will present my research and educational experiences with two professional development programs in which I practiced scientific research. Real world applications of scientific principles cause science to be less abstract and allow the students to be involved in genuine science in the field. Students view teachers differently as a teacher brings her/his experience and enthusiasm for learning into the classroom environment. Furthermore, by developing activities around those experiences, the teacher may permit the students to have some direct involvement with scientific research. One of the common goals of these programs is for teachers to understand the research process and the science involved with it. My goal is to remain a teacher and use these valuable experiences to inspire my students. My job, after completing the research experience and doing investigations in the field, becomes one of •Àtranslator•À taking the content and process knowledge and making it understandable and authentic for the advancement of my students. It also becomes one of •Àmentor•À when helping to develop the skills of new teachers. Both of my experiences included seagoing expeditions. The REVEL program was my first experience in the summer of 2000. It gave me an immense opportunity to become part of a research team studying the underwater volcanic environment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. With the ARMADA project (2006), I learned about SONAR as we traveled via NOAA ship along the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using examples from both of these highly valuable programs, I will be presenting my ideas about how to prepare teachers for their research experience, how to make the transition from research experience to practical classroom application, and how these experiences play a role in retaining the best science teachers and developing new science teachers for the future. Research programs such as these, furnish me with an added sense of confidence as I facilitate student learning. Both programs also enhance my credibility in the eyes of my students who ask: •ÀAre you a scientist, too?•À


Climate History of the Southern San Joaquin Valley of California, USA: Authentic Paleoclimate Research with K-12 Teachers

* Baron, D ( , Department of Physics and Geology, California State University, Bakersfield, 9001 Stockdale Highway, Bakersfield, CA 93311, United States
Negrini, R M ( , Department of Physics and Geology, California State University, Bakersfield, 9001 Stockdale Highway, Bakersfield, CA 93311, United States
Palacios-Fest, M R ( , Terra Nostra Earth Sciences Research, 6312 N Barcelona Lane # 606, Tucson, AZ 85704, United States
Auffant, K ( , Owens Intermediate School, Bakersfield City School District, 1300 Baker Street, Bakersfield, CA 93305

For three summers, the Department of Geology at California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB) has invited teachers from local schools to participate in a research program that is investigating the climate history of the San Joaquin Valley of California. In each 4-week summer project, three elementary/middle school teachers and three high school teachers worked with CSUB faculty, undergraduate geology students, and a small group of high school students. The research centers around the analysis of 50-foot (15 m) sediment cores from two locations in the Tulare Lake basin. These cores preserve a regional climate record dating back to about 35,000 years before the present. Research tasks include the description of sediments from the cores for parameters such as grain size, color, and mineralogy. Sediment analyses include total organic and total inorganic carbon, as well as magnetic susceptibility. Ostracode shells were separated from the sediments, ostracode species present were identified and their abundances determined. Each teacher was put in charge of the description and analysis of several 5-foot (1.5 m) core segments. Each teacher was the leader of a research group including a CSUB geology student and one or two high school students. The groups were responsible for all aspects of the description and analysis of their core segments. They were also in charge of the paleoclimate interpretations and the presentation of their research results at the end of the summer projects. Surveys conducted before and after the summer program indicate that teacher's knowledge of climate change and regional geology, as well as their confidence in teaching Earth science at their schools increased. Follow-up surveys conducted a year after the first summer program indicate that the research experience had a lasting positive impact on teacher's confidence and their enthusiasm for teaching Earth science. Several of the teachers have developed lesson plans and/or field trips for their classes incorporating aspects of what they learned during the summer programs. The following features make the investigation of regional paleoclimate an especially rewarding and successful research topic for the summer programs: First, the practical relevance of the research is easily apparent to participating teachers and students; second, the research tasks are relatively straightforward and require only a moderate amount of training; and third, many aspects of the research are relevant in the context of National and California Science Standards. Finally, the research draws on the expertise of CSUB faculty and allows them to advance their own research agendas while engaging in outreach to K-12 schools. They can thus avoid the hard choice between scientific research and educational outreach activities, an all too common dilemma for science faculty under pressure to publish scientific research.


Creating Authentic Research Centers In Secondary Classrooms And Retaining The Best Science Teachers

* Rodriguez, D ( , National High Magnetic Field Lab, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310, United States
McHenry, R M ( , National High Magnetic Field Lab, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310, United States

My name is David Rodriguez. I am a middle school science teacher with 18 years of teaching experience both in Leon County, Florida and in Guinea West Africa, and South Africa. I am a National Board Certified Teacher. Richard McHenry is a high school Chemistry Advance Placement teacher with over 25 years of teaching experience, also in Leon County, Florida. Rich is a National Board Certified Teacher as well. We participated in a Research Experience For Teachers (RET) program at the National High Magnetic Field Lab in Tallahassee, Florida in 2001 and 2002. This experience has had a profound impact on our teaching, and on our student's learning. During our experience, it became clear to us that there is great importance in how scientists approach their research. We discussed this approach with teams of scientists, and asked them how they thought it could be modeled in classrooms. As teachers, we have been convinced of the value of cooperative learning for years, but to assign roles in cooperative groups similar to the roles that are created in a research science setting has improved student learning. Each team of students is assigned a project manager, data analyst, engineer, and principal investigator. The role of each scientist is specific. As a result of our RET experience, Rich also created a new program in his high school class in which students write scientific papers at the end of each grading period that outline the achievements and lab experiences completed during that period. The importance of publishing research and communicating with the greater scientific community are highlighted through this unique experience. These papers go through a peer review process within the school, and are then sent to the National High Magnetic Field Lab for further review provided by scientists and educators. I was also involved in an atmospheric research project during my RET program that utilized teachers and students throughout the state in the collection of data. Elementary through high school teachers in the state of Florida were contacted and asked to collect a sample of Spanish Moss from trees near their schools. These samples were sent to scientists and educators involved in the RET program at the National High Magnetic Field Lab who examined and compared the concentrations of a number of pollutants. When presented with a an opportunity leave the classroom two years ago to take on a new position, I decided to continue teaching middle school science, in large part due to my continued involvement in the research programs available at the the National High Magnetic Field Lab. Programs such as the RET program are essential to retaining the best science teachers in our schools.


Methods of Science Investigation: A New Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research

* Danch, J M ( , Colonia High School, 180 East Street, Colonia, NJ 07067, United States
O'Lone, B ( , Colonia High School, 180 East Street, Colonia, NJ 07067, United States
Darytichen, F ( , Colonia High School, 180 East Street, Colonia, NJ 07067, United States

The Methods of Science Investigation Curriculum was designed to include students with special needs in participating in original scientific research. Based on techniques field tested in 2005, this new curriculum moves students from traditional teacher-facilitated presentations of what is often dubbed The Scientific Method, to a student-facilitated exploration and utilization of what is, in reality the many methods and environments of original scientific investigation. Students utilize traditional procedure-based inquiry activities as a springboard for participation in authentic laboratory and field research experiences, culminating in the development, implementation, and presentation of results. Emphasis is placed on instructing teachers as well as students to approach scientific research as an individualized process rather than a series of written procedures culminating in a predetermined outcome.


Sampling and Studying Permafrost in Alaska and on Mars: Mars Arctic Regions Science Field Experience for Secondary Teachers (MARSFEST)

* Keller, J M ( , Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, United States
Buxner, S R ( , Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, United States
Douglas, T A ( , Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab, P.O. Box 35170, Fort Wainwright, AK 99703, United States
Lombardi, D A ( , Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, United States
Shaner, A J ( , Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, United States

Both neutron and gamma ray data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft provide compelling evidence for the presence of water ice buried within the upper few tens of centimeters of Mars at high latitudes.$^{1-3}$ In May 2008, the Phoenix Mars Lander mission will arrive at the northern high latitudes of Mars to ground-truth the presence of this water ice. The mission will use a robotic arm to deliver samples of permafrost to several instruments on the deck of the spacecraft for detailed chemical and microscopic analyses. Two primary science objectives at the landing site are to study the history of water in all its phases and to characterize soil habitability.$^{4}$ As part of the Education and Public Outreach efforts for both the Phoenix and Odyssey missions, 20 secondary science teachers from across the U.S. and Canada were selected to spend a week in Summer 2006 immersed in arctic region science around Fairbanks, Alaska. The focal point of the experience involved investigations conducted at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Permafrost Tunnel.$^{5}$ Teacher participants combined remote sensing and in situ observations of permafrost regions, conducted sample collection and analyses to investigate research questions generated by participants at the Permafrost Tunnel, explored comparisons between the terrestrial and Martian arctic, and completed inquiry-based classroom curriculum activities related to Mars and arctic science. A video documentary of the field experience is being produced by the NASA Mars Public Engagement program for education and public outreach purposes. The ten teacher teams involved in the workshop will now serve as educational ambassadors for the Phoenix Mars Lander mission over the next two years through to the completion of surface operations for the mission. They will be supported through monthly teleconferences updating them on mission status and continued research opportunities. An extensive longitudinal evaluation plan was implemented to investigate the impact of the field experience on participant attitudes towards and implementation of inquiry-based science activities both immediately following and a year after the workshop. In this study, a central science education research question involves the impact of research-based teacher professional development on classroom teaching and translation to research-based student learning experiences. Preliminary results and planned follow-up will be discussed. $^{1}$Boynton et al. (2002), ``Distribution of hydrogen in the near surface of Mars: Evidence for subsurface ice deposits,'' {\it Science} 297:81 $^{2}$Feldman et al. (2002), ``Global distribution of neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey,'' {\it Science} 297:75. $^{3}$Mitrofanov et al. (2002), ``Maps of subsurface hydrogen from the High Energy Neutron Detector, Mars Odyssey,'' {\it Science} 297:78. $^{4}$ $^{5}$


The Mysteries of Seamounts: Case Study Results of a Teacher Research Experience

* Hjelm, E E ( , Crossroads Academy, 95 Dartmouth College Highway, Lyme, NH 03768, United States

Based on our classroom experiences, earth sciences websites can form the foundation for scientific discovery for students as young as 12. Using the latest developments in digital library technology and research models from the ERESE 2005 Plate Tectonics Teacher Workshop, Crossroads Academy sixth grade scientists developed a research program on biodiversity, volcanology, tectonic setting, life cycle and physical structure of seamounts. Using their own questions as starting points for individual inquiry, each student developed a testable hypothesis, gathered and analyzed data from selected seamount websites and reached a significant conclusion on an important aspect of seamounts. All of the work was documented in lab reports written as html files. References were linked into the lab reports to facilitate the teacher's checking of data sources and of the student's interpretations of their data. The links also provided a simple mechanism for twelve year olds to accurately cite data sources. Lab reports were presented to the class during a formal research session. The completed lab reports produced a student generated research database that was initially used by the students to complete a separate lab on factors influencing biodiversity at seamounts. Finally, the student investigators were able to work as a research team to answer a variety of additional questions posed by the teacher and other students.


The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program

* Perry, S ( , Southern California Earthquake Center, University of Southern California MC 0742, Los Angeles, CA 90089, United States
Jordan, T ( , Southern California Earthquake Center, University of Southern California MC 0742, Los Angeles, CA 90089, United States

Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation''s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a ``wider, farther'' recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see ``SCEC-VDO,'' session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.


Creating A Culture Of Scientific Inquiry Through Research Experiences For Teachers And Students

* Kanjorski, N ( , Science Education Solutions, 4200 W. Jemez Rd., Suite 301, Los Alamos, NM 87544
Hall, M ( , Science Education Solutions, 4200 W. Jemez Rd., Suite 301, Los Alamos, NM 87544

Creating A Culture Of Scientific Inquiry (CACOSI) is a National Science Foundation funded pilot project designed to help middle and high school teachers and students achieve a scientific understanding of their world through authentic short and long-term classroom and field research experiences. Throughout the past year CACOSI had reached out to several Northern New Mexico minority-serving schools to implement inquiry-based projects in 6th, 7th, and 8th grade classrooms such as weather, earthquake, and schoolyard ecosystem monitoring. Professional scientists were also introduced into the classroom to act as teachers and mentors of the science process and help expose students to scientific career opportunities. Additionally, CACOSI has developed a one- week residential Summer Science Camp to introduce the students and teachers to hands-on Earth and environmental science investigations with the assistance of professional scientists in the field. Development of this camp significantly strengthened and expanded the partnerships that have been created over the past three years and will allow us to expand the CACOSI project to include more field-based exploration during the 2006- 2007 school year across two school systems. Throughout this project we have found that consistent teacher support is required to implement authentic research projects in the classroom. The summer science camp was particularly helpful to the teachers in developing their comfort with the inherent unpredictability of hands-on field research projects. This year we are working with the schools to take the students and teachers out of the classroom setting into the field for one day each month with professional scientists' assistance. This will allow us to explore more intensive field investigations and overcome some of the barriers created by the classroom structure and schedule.


When the teacher becomes the researcher: Outcomes and lessons from the Earthworks professional development workshops

* Buhr, S M ( , Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0449, United States
Lynds, S E ( , Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0449, United States
Smith, L K ( , Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0449, United States

"Earthworks" is a field-based workshop for secondary science teachers in which teachers collaborate with in groups with geoscience researchers to design and implement their own week-long research project. The goal of the workshop is to provide an opportunity for teachers to practice research skills and habits of mind from the start of a study to the finish, thereby making the implementation of these skills in the classroom more likely. Our model shares many of the same goals of traditional research experiences for teachers, but differs in the way that we approach them. Earthworks teachers have the opportunity to return for the summer workshop from year to year, and to participate with one another virtually through the years. Many have won grants to implement the plans they made during Earthworks, and have implemented classroom research activities on questions of local interest. This talk will describe the results of an evaluation study which focuses on the implemented outcomes of participants, the factors which hinder or aid classroom implementation, the role of the Earthworks community, and more. The study includes semi-structured phone interviews with returning and first-year participants, interviews with volunteer scientists, and surveys of the participant community.


OceanGLOBE: an Outdoor Research and Environmental Education Program for K-12 Students

* Perry, R B ( , Malibu High School, 30215 Morning View Drive, Malibu, CA 90265, United States
Hamner, W M ( , University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Box 951606, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, United States

OceanGLOBE is an outdoor environmental research and education program for upper elementary, middle and high school students, supplemented by online instructional materials that are available without charge to any educator. OceanGLOBE was piloted in 1995 with support from a National Science Foundation Teacher Enhancement project, •ÀLeadership in Marine Science•À (award no.ESI-9454413 to UCLA). Continuing support by a second NSF Teacher Enhancement project (award no. ESI-9819424 to UCLA) and by COSEE-West (NSF awards OCE-215506 to UCLA and OCE-0215497 to USC) has enabled OceanGLOBE to expand to a growing number of schools and to provide an increasingly robust collection of marine science instructional materials on its website, OceanGLOBE provides a mechanism for students to conduct inquiry-based, hands-on marine science research, providing experiences that anchor the national and state science content standards learned in the classroom. Students regularly collect environmental and biological data from a beach site over an extended period of time. In the classroom they organize, graph and analyze their data, which can lead to a variety of student-created science products. Beach research is supported by instructional marine science materials on the OceanGLOBE website. These online materials also can be used in the classroom independent of the field component. Annotated PowerPoint slide shows explain research protocols and provide marine science content. Field guides and photographs of marine organisms (with emphasis on the Southern California Bight) and a growing collection of classroom investigations (applicable to any ocean location) support the science content presented in the beach research program and slide shows. In summary, OceanGLOBE is a comprehensive learning package grounded in hands-on, outdoor marine science research project in which students are the principal investigators. By doing scientific work repetitively over an extended time period students learn about how science is done as much as they learn science content.


Astronomy in Research-Based Science Education (A-RBSE): A Review of a Decade of Professional Development Programs in Support of Teacher and Student Research at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory

* Pompea, S M ( , National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, United States
Garmany, C D ( , National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, United States
Walker, C E ( , National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, United States
Croft, S K ( , National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, United States

We will review the evolution of the Research Based Science Education (RBSE) and Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science (TLRBSE) programs at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory over the last eleven years. The program has evolved from an NSF-funded program in teacher enhancement to an observatory-supported core education initiative. The present manifestation of our program is an umbrella of programs designed to aid teachers in doing research with astronomical data archives, small telescopes, large research-grade telescopes, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The professional development program has addressed basic questions on the nature of research, best techniques to bring it into the classroom, the value of authentic research, and the mix of on-line versus in-person professional development. The current program is used to test new models of teacher professional development that for outreach programs for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope program, the Thirty-Meter Telescope program, and the National Virtual Observatory program. We will describe a variety of lessons learned (and relearned) and try to describe best practices in promoting teacher and student research. The TLRBSE Program has been funded by the National Science Foundation under ESI 0101982, funded through the AURA/NSF Cooperative Agreement AST-9613615. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.


Reaching Michigan Earth Science Teachers and Students With Data From the Deep

* Kortlandt, H ( , Otsego High School, 540 Washington Street, Otsego, MI 49078, United States
St. John, K ( , Department of Geology and Environmental Science, James Madison University, MSC 773 7125 Memorial Hall 395 S. High Street, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, United States

A new model for a teacher research experience, dubbed The •ÀSchool of Rock•À (SOR), was created when 13 K-12 educators from across the U.S. sailed for two and a half weeks on the JOIDES Resolution, a scientific ocean drilling vessel. During a transit between expeditions of the NSF-funded Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, two research scientists, a full technical staff, staff organizers from Joint Oceanographic Institutions' JOI Learning and its JOI Alliance partners, and ship's crew were on hand to demonstrate and facilitate hands-on research techniques and data acquisition. The educators analyzed core samples and data from 26 scientific ocean drilling expeditions. Through these experiences, the SOR educators are now able to intertwine authentic new and archived data into their classroom objectives and lessons. Heather Kortlandt, a Michigan high school science teacher, will share her experiences writing and field-testing new SOR-inspired curricular activities with high school students and a new weeklong, shore-based, graduate course she designed for teachers at Western Michigan University.



Earth System Science Education Alliance

* Myers, R (bob_myers\ , Institute for Global Environmenta Strategies, 1600 Wilson Blvd., Suite 901, Arlington, VA 22209, United States
Schwerin, T (theresa_schwerin\ , Institute for Global Environmenta Strategies, 1600 Wilson Blvd., Suite 901, Arlington, VA 22209, United States

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA‰Ûªs successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Beginning in 2006 NSF funding will enable ESSEA will expand to 40 institutions of higher learning that are committed to teacher education in Earth system science. The program will support participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers will be prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA‰Ûªs Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program‰Ûªs mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 k-12 teachers in Earth system science. Although NASA funding ended in late 2005, the courses continue to be offered by 17 of the original 20 institutions. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES will enhance and build upon the ESSEA foundation by: 1.Using the ESSEA courses as a model to introduce newly upgraded Earth system science undergraduate and graduate courses; 2. Introducing extensive use of data, models and existing Earth system educational materials to support the courses; 3.Disseminating model teaching practices and program success through annual conferences and presentations at national and regional geoscience and science teacher conferences; and 4.Expanding the base of 17 ESSEA colleges and universities to 40 participating institutions. ESSEA has created a national professional development program aimed at improving the knowledge, skills, and resources of Earth system science educators. This professional development program offers state-of-the-art, online courses to promote understanding of Earth system science, to encourage communication and cooperation among teachers, and to facilitate the use of exceptional classroom materials. Beginning in 2006 IGES will further this vision by expanding the number of institutions offering the courses; updating the courses with additional tools, modules, and resources; and providing continuing support to institutions and faculty teaching middle-high school teachers (pre- and in-service) using the ESSEA courses and instructional resources.


Earth2Class: Assessing Interactions Between Research Scientists and Classroom Teachers

* Passow, M J ( , Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W, Palisades, NY 10964
Iturrino, G ( , Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W, Palisades, NY 10964
Assumpcao, C M , Colegio Bandeirantes, Rua Estela, 268, Sao Paulo, SP 99999 Brazil
Baggio, F D , Baggio Technology, Rua Vergueiro, 2087, Sao Paulo, SP 99999 Brazil

The Earth2Class Workshops at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (E2C) have brought together research scientists and secondary school teachers from the New York metropolitan area and neighboring states to learn about outcomes of investigations into many aspects of the Earth System and processes involved in making such discoveries. NSF Geoscience Education Grant 0331232 has provided support for an expanded program over the past three years, described at the 2005 Fall Meeting. We now present the results of formative and summative assessments of the effectiveness of this project. Among questions explored were: What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? Formative evaluations were conducted through online and written responses from participants, feedback from conference presentations, and comments posted on teacher list-servers. Almost all responses were overwhelmingly positive. Formal, summative studies conducted by two external grant evaluators also noted many positive results. One abridged conclusion states: The E2C project is a unique and effective professional development program that can stimulate teachers and keep them informed of the vital content they teach. It is a model worthy of duplication in other subject areas and across the country. It may help to retain the best of our teachers and overcome an unfortunate attrition rate. The direct contact with professional scientists and collegial interactions in a non- threatening professional environment are critical dispositional and cognitive components of this success. The second reports: The E2C program and its associated resources provide unique, high-quality professional development to both teachers in the E2C workshops and to those that seek on-line professional development and/or useful classroom materials and ideas. The E2C website promises to be a site of first choice when searching for curricular materials. Although there are negligible concerns regarding the scalability of the program, Earth2Class has proven that cutting-edge research in the Earth sciences can be made accessible to classroom teachers, who, in turn, can share exciting research with their students. The E2C concept clearly warrants further exploration and testing at other sites. This exciting, innovative program has successfully modeled a synergistic relationship between notable scientists and K-12 teachers. Through this program, K-12 teachers receive unparalleled professional development and researchers are provided with a clearly delineated, direct means of achieving their mandated education and public outreach (Criterion 2) responsibilities. One can hardly imagine a more fruitful, win/win situation. Cooperating scientists utilized this program to make results of their investigations known to hundreds of teachers and, through them, thousands of students. Participants in the Workshops and others using archived versions on gained new understandings about many areas of geoscience and how scientists identify questions to explore. Middle and high school Earth Science teachers and students benefited from the myriad of online resources.