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16th NSO/SP Workshop ...... (1Dec95) of Solar Drivers of Interplanetary and Terrestrial Disturbances (from NSO, NOAO Newsletter No. 44, December 1995) During the week of 16-20 October, the Air Force Solar Group at Sacramento Peak and NSO co-hosted with NSO a workshop that brought together personnel from the space-weather forecasting community and the research community to discuss the state of the art in space weather forecasting from the Sun to the Earth. A major goal of the workshop was to define areas that must progress to meet the challenges of increased reliance on space and space assets in the 21st century. Scientists from the solar, interplanetary, and terrestrial disciplines covering the full range of space weather were present, including the Air Force Pentagon Weather Planning office, the Space Forecast Center of the Air Force 50th Space Wing, the NOAA Space Environment Center, the Geophysics Directorate of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory, the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, NASA, and a number of universities from Europe and Asia as well as the US. This very successful workshop began with an overview of requirements for solar-driven space weather prediction. This session was followed by several sessions discussing our present knowledge of solar events leading to particle, radiation, and magnetic disturbances, including flares, solar mass ejections, eruptive prominences and solar wind modulation. Properties and models of the interplanetary medium responsible for transporting solar disturbances from the Sun to the Earth and their relationship to solar drivers were discussed. The following sessions were devoted to the interface between solar disturbances and the Earth's magnetosphere, the effects of solar disturbances in the terrestrial atmosphere, and the possibility of producing an end-to-end (Sun-to-Earth) forecast model. The final session addressed the effects of solar spectral irradiance variations on the Earth's atmosphere and the possibility of predicting such variations. Throughout the workshop, discussion focussed on the need for replacing statistical models with physical models. Proceedings of the workshop will appear in the ASP Conference Series. These proceedings should serve as a key guide to user needs for solar-driven space weather prediction and as a reference for our current and planned abilities to meet those needs. The workshop was sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, and NASA. Ray Smartt, Steve Keil, K.S. Balasubramaniam
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